Closed systems are potential traps

It’s easy to get out of a stuck tram. A stuck underground train, on the other hand, traps folk inside and forces them to wait for help.

Ditto for escalators and lifts. A broken escalator is just a technobrutalist staircase.

An ATM that requires inserting a card makes it too easy to forget it there. Such an ATM can also take the card away in case of a bug, has a place to attach a skimming device, and wastes folk’s time by forcing them to fiddle with things. An ATM that scans cards contactlessly has none of these issues.

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